How the Eyes Work

Vector image of an eyeball.

Every morning, we open our eyes and become immersed in a wealth of visual information. The eyes and related brain structures are a complex system that allows us to experience visual information from the surrounding world. It is easy to take clear vision for granted, but even subtle changes in the structure or functioning of the eyes can disrupt our sight. An eye care provider conducts a thorough eye exam to ensure that these components are functioning together well.

Basic Eye Anatomy

The eyeball is not a single, spherical structure as is commonly thought. It consists of a smaller, curved portion called the cornea that attaches to a larger, roughly spherical structure called the sclera (the white of the eye). The eyeball is filled with a jelly-like substance called the vitreous fluid.

Toward the front of the eye are three essential structures: the iris, pupil, and lens. The iris is the colored part of your eye. It can open and close to determine how much light to let in through the pupil, the black hole in the center of your eye. Finally, the lens is a flexible, convex structure that changes shape to direct light rays in different directions within the eye.

At the back of the eyeball is a layer of tissue called the retina. The retina consists of millions of photosensitive cells that react to certain types of light. Cone cells are clustered toward the center of the retina, and react to colors and details in bright light. Rod cells, which are spread toward the periphery of the retina, react to dim lighting conditions.

How the Eyes Facilitate Vision

When light enters the eye through the pupil, it passes through the lens, which changes shape to ensure that the light rays hit the retina. When the light rays reach the back of the eye, it stimulates the rod and cone cells to fire. Cone cells detect fine details and color in the center of your visual field. Rod cells detect edges in peripheral vision and allow us to perceive shapes in dim light.

The rods and cones in your retina convert light energy into electrical signals, which exit the eye through the optic nerve, located just below the center of the retina. The optic nerve carries visual information to the occipital cortex in the very back of your brain, where it is processed to result in a rich visual experience.

If any part of this complex arrangement functions improperly, vision is impaired. Thus, it is essential to receive regular optometry exams to have your eye structures and visual abilities checked.

Exclusive Offer

Free Pair of Single Vision glasses with purchase of complete pair of glasses!

Hours of Operation

Our Regular Schedule

Monday:

Please Call

Tuesday:

Please Call

Wednesday:

Please Call

Thursday:

Please Call

Friday:

Please Call

Saturday:

Please Call

Sunday:

Closed

Location

Find us on the map

Testimonials

Reviews From Our Satisfied Patients

  • "TSO Bishop Arts is the best at what they do and make you feel right at home."
    Brian N.
  • "Doctors and staff are courteous and very professional. I wholeheartedly recommend TSO Bishop Arts!"
    Rebecca M.

Featured Articles

Helpful and Informative Resources

  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    One of the leading causes of vision loss in people who are age 50 or older is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This common eye condition leads to damage of a small spot near the center of the retina called the macula. The macula provides us with the ability to clearly see objects that are straight ...

    Read More
  • Diabetic Eye Diseases

    Diabetes is a condition that involves high blood sugar (glucose) levels. This can affect many parts of the body, including the eyes. One of the most common diabetic eye diseases is diabetic retinopathy, which is also a leading cause of blindness in American adults. Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy ...

    Read More
  • Presbyopia

    Somewhere around the age of 40, most people’s eyes lose the ability to focus on close-up objects. This condition is called presbyopia. You may start holding reading material farther away, because it is blurry up close. Reading suddenly gives you eyestrain. You might wonder when manufacturers started ...

    Read More
  • Laser Cataract Surgery

    The only way to correct the clouded vision caused by advanced cataracts is surgical intervention. If you find yourself pursuing cataract surgery to remove one or both cataract-disease lenses, you may be wondering what surgical approaches are available for treatment. Although eye surgeons have successfully ...

    Read More
  • Cataract Surgery

    With cataract surgery, your ophthalmologist removes the cataract-diseased lens of your eye. The ophthalmologist then replaces your natural lens with an artificial one. The Procedure This outpatient procedure is generally safe and takes less than an hour. Your ophthalmologist will dilate your pupil ...

    Read More
  • Fuchs' Corneal Dystrophy

    Fuchs' dystrophy (pronounced fooks DIS-truh-fee) is an eye disease characterized by degenerative changes to the cornea’s innermost layer of cells. The cause for Fuchs' dystrophy is not fully understood. If your mother or father has the disease, then there is roughly a 50 percent chance that you will ...

    Read More
  • Peripheral Vision Loss

    Normal sight includes central vision (the field of view straight ahead) and peripheral vision (the field of view outside the circle of central vision). The inability to see within a normal range of view often indicates peripheral vision loss. In severe cases of peripheral vision loss, individuals only ...

    Read More
  • Presbyopia

    As we age, our eyes—like the rest of our bodies—begin to lose flexibility and strength. When this happens to the lens of the eye and its surrounding muscles, your lens will become stiff. This makes it harder to see close objects clearly because the eyes can't focus properly. It's a natural part of ...

    Read More
  • Patches

    Eye patches are used to strengthen muscle control in weak eyes. By placing a patch over the strong eye, the weaker eye is forced to do the heavy lifting. While it may be uncomfortable for the patient at first, the muscle controlling the weaker eye will become tougher and more resilient. This will allow ...

    Read More
  • Learning Disabilities and Vision Therapy

    Does your child struggle in school due to learning disabilities? Vision therapy may make learning easier. ...

    Read More

Newsletter Signup

Sign Up to Receive More Articles